Tuesday, May 15, 2012

GUAR CULTIVATION IN INDIA



Guar Cultivation

  Kingdom
Plantae
  Division
Magnoliophyta
  Class
Magnoliopsida
  Order
Fabales
  Family
Leguminosae
  Genus
Cyamopsis
  Species
C.tetragonoloba
  Botanical name
Cyamopsis tetragonolobus (L.)
  Synonyms
Cyamopsis psoralioides L.
  Part Used
Seeds
  Vernacular Name
Guar
Guar or cluster bean is an annual legume crop. Guar means "cow food" in Hindi. For best growth, the guar bean requires full sunshine, flashing rainfalls that are moderately frequent, and well-drained soil. Guar plant is a rough to touch, bushy plant. The ability to dwell even in the drought like conditions. This small, purple flowered, pointed leaved plant ranges from 2-9 feet in height. It is consumed as a bean, livestock fed and also in the form of manure in the fields.
History:
It grew wildly in the hot and arid areas of Africa or the deserts of Middle East. The Arab people first domesticated guar to feed their horses with it. When the trade started flourishing in the Middle East during the silk route trading days, the traders brought with them the pods of guar in India.

India also being a hot weathered country suited well for the crop. The regions in the country possessing desert lands like Gujarat and Rajasthan helped guar to flourish and gain importance as there is a small number of vegetables that can be grown in such areas. This helped the crop to diversify its uses from animal feed to human consumption as well. Guar was introduced into the United States in 1903 by India.
 Guar is basically a crop that is cultivated mostly in the arid and semi arid areas as it is drought resistant. That is why the Southern Asian continent suits well to the cultivation of this crop especially the Indian subcontinent. The powder made after refining the gum obtained from the plant makes an important raw material in many industries. This powder has some unique characteristics like grease resistance, thickening agent, capacity to bind water, high viscosity and the capability to function in low temperatures which makes it a highly popular in those sectors. Among other by- products of guar, guar gum powder is the main marketable commodity.

Guar was not known for its industrial application till in the times of World War II, when there was shortage of locust bean crop and the paper and textile industry of the world was searching for a substitute. They found as efficient alternative in the form of guar gum and since then, this derivative of guar ruled out locust bean from this scenario and it was readily accepted for application in many other industries.
The world’s total production of guar figures around 7.5 to 10 lakh tons of guar every year. The production list of guar is dominated by India as a leading producer of this crop. The consumption pattern of guar seeds is largely influenced by the demands from the petroleum industry of United States of America and the oil fields in the Middle East as the derivative products of these seeds are quite useful in the petroleum drilling industries. United States alone constitute to around 40 thousand tons of guar and its derivatives demand. Also, in rest of the world, the trend of consumption has increased with time that has lead to the introduction of this crop in many countries.
Production Area:
India leads the list of the major guar producing countries of the world contributing to around 75 to 80% in the world’s total production of around 7.5 lakhs to 10 lakhs tons. Pakistan follows India in the list with 10 - 15% share in the world’s total produce. The most important by-product of this crop i.e. guar gum is obtained through the processing of endosperm of the seeds of guar. This product is vastly produced in the countries such as USA, Germany, China, Italy, South Africa, and United Kingdom though these countries are not really indulged in the production of guar as a crop.

Land Preparation:

Guar grows in many well-drained soils the best in sandy loam. It is tolerant of soil salinity and alkalinity.
Guar needs a firm seedbed with bed uniformity. Deep broken ground must have firm soil to prevent moisture loss during germination in loose soil. Land can be prepared by conventional till, minimum till, or conservation till. Conservation till requires a minimum bed height of 4 inches and an maximum height of 8 inches, or a somewhat peaked bed for easier harvesting. Broadcast planting is the preferred method in the upper Rolling Plains.
Varieties: Pusa naubahar and Pusa sadabahar

Planting:

Guar should be planted in moist to wet gound with a soil temperature above 70° F. Planting should be on a peaked bed in ridge-till operation. The planting depth, like that of milo or cotton should range from 1 to 2 inches. A thick stand will produce an increased node-setting length from the ground, thus producing a more harvestable bean.
Sowing Time:
;Mainly cultivated in the Kharif season- June to August
Seed rate:
Guar seed required 30 Kg/hac and Planting space of 45-60 x 20-30cm. In the rainy season, the seed are sown 2-3 cm deep on the ridge

Growth:

Guar growth is slow for the first three weeks. During the first growth period, the visible part of the plant seems dormant. This is normal. At this time, the taproot is developing a strong root system or may have poor inoculation, like most legumes.
Fertilizer:
FYM is applied at the rate of 25 tones/ha.N, P2O5 and K2O recommended for crop is 20:60:80 kg/ha.

Diseases

There are only two major diseases that effect guar.
1. Alternaria Leaf Blight or Target Spot. This fungus will appear on the plant with repeated days of cool, wet weather.
2. Bacterial Leaf Blight. This is a seed disease which will cause the plant to begin premature defoliation. It is caused mainly by contaminated seed.

Insects

Guar midge is the primary insect pest. It can cause up to a 30% loss in production. Guar midge is usually concentrated in sandier soils and infestation will take place between 45 and 90 days of emergence. Chance of infestation may be significantly reduced by rainfall or sprinkler irrigation. Other potential insect threats are gall midge, three cornered alfalfa hoppers, white flies, white grubs, thrips and aphids.

Cultivation

Normal cultivation practices for row-crop operations should be used. Guar should not be cultivated, knifed, or plowed more than twice. Since guar growth is somewhat slow in the first four weeks, it is susceptible to sand damage. Therefore, sand fighting is at the grower's discretion.

Harvesting

Harvested in the October to November period. The guar growing season is typically be 90 to 120 days with timely rains or irrigation. Guar prefers a hot, dry climate and thrives in areas receiving less than 30 inches annual rainfall. It is an indeterminate plant, therefore, when there is a lack of moisture, guar will stop growing but it will not die.
Guar, a summer annual, has smooth leaves, pods and stems with single stem fine or basal branching. Guar will range in height from 6 to 46 inches. Pods are generally 1 to 3 inches in length with an average of 7 to 9 beans per pod. Beans vary in color from light tan to dark black.

Yield

Average yield is 5 to 6 tonnes/ha (2.2–2.6 tons/acre).

1 comment:

  1. sorry to say , but the yield that you have written is hard to digest , the max yield i have observed is 2 to 2.4 tonne / hectare

    ReplyDelete