Thursday, March 22, 2012


Wheat is the most important rabi season crop in the country occupying about 50 % of the total area under food crops and accounting for more than 70 % of the total grain production in the rabi season. Wheat is one of the most widely cultivated cereal crops of the world. In India wheat is the second important staple food crop, next to rice. The nutritive value of wheat is Wheat has high content of vitamin B complex. Wheat proteins significies especially in providing a characteristic substance called gluten which is used in bakeries.

Area and Distribution
In India, wheat occupies second position, after paddy in both area & production. Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Bihar, Haryana, Maharashtra and Gujarat are major wheat growing states of the country. Though the maximum acreage and production of wheat is in U.P. but the highest average yield is in Punjab .

Classification of Indian Wheat’s
Wheat is an annual plant of Grammeae family. It belongs to genus Triticum. Although as many as 18 species of wheat have been described and recognized, only a few are of agricultural importance. They are discussed as under.

1. Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schuh L.)
Grown in certain areas of southern India i.e. Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka & Andhra Pradesh is good for the South Indian dish uppuma vu.

2. Macaroni wheat (Triticum durum des/)
Grown in drought conditions or under restricted irrigation conditions of Punjab, M.P., Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, West Bengal and Himachal Pradesh. Mainly used for semolina (i,e. suji or rawa, semya and sphagetti). -

3. Common bread wheat (T. vulgare Hist)
Grown in alluvial soils of Indo-Gangetic plains i.e. Punjab, U.P., Bihar and parts of Rajasthan. The majority of Indian wheat crop, consists of this type. The prominent varieties are K-65, K.68, C-13, Pb-591 and C-306.

4. Indian dwarf wheat (Triticum spherococcum Mihi)
Grown in limited areas of India and Pakistan. These are characterised by very short and compact heads having shorter grains.

5. Mexican dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum)
Grown in almost all the wheat growing zones, was introduced in India by Dr N.E. Borlaug of Mexico, covers more than 87 % of the total wheat growing area of India, followed by durum wheat (about l 12 %) and dicoccum wheat (about 1 %). The common wheat (T. aestivum) which is good for chapati making and bakery products is grown in whole of North India and also in central and South India.
Climate & Time of Wheat Sowing
The best wheat’s are produced in areas favoured with cool, moist weather during the major portion of the growing period followed by dry warm weather to enable the grain to ripen properly. Date of sowing depends on the type of variety, weather, soil, irrigation etc. The appropriate time of sowing is when the temperature is 20-22 0C, i.e. second week of November is the optimum time of sowing in Northern India plains. Last Dates of sowing in North West India is upto 25th December.

The optimum temperature requirements for the different growth stages of wheat plant is
Growth stages
Temperature requirement
(mean daily  temp. in c)
Accelerated growth
Proper grain filling

Wheat plant requires about 14-15°C optimum average temperature at the time of ripening. The temperature at the time of grain filling must not exceed 25°C, as higher temperature at this stage tends to depress grain weight.

Ideal soil for wheat cultivation is the clay loam or loam soil having a good structure and moderate water holding capacity. Soil should be neutral i.e. the pH of soil should range from 6.5 to 7.5. Heavy soils with good drainage are suitable for wheat cultivation under dry conditions. These soils efficiently absorb and retain longer rain water.

Land Preparation
Wheat crop requires a well pulverized but compact seed bed for good and uniform germination. In irrigated areas, wheat is usually sown after kharif crops like maize, paddy, jowar, bajra, urd and mung. After the harvest of previous crop, the field should be ploughed with disc or mould board plough.

Where tractor is available, one deep ploughing followed by 2-3 harrowings with disc or tines harrow and 2-3 plankings with heavy wooden planks should be carried out to prepare a well pulverized seed bed.

Where bullocks are the source of power, deep ploughing followed by 2-3 harrowings or 4-5 intercross ploughings with local plough are done. Planking is done after each ploughing to crush the clods. Seed bed, how- ever, should not become too powdery. One pre-sowing irrigation 7-10 days before sowing is necessary to ensure satisfactory germination where the land is not moist.

In case where previous crop was sugarcane, toria, arhar, etc., the pre-sowing irrigation may be given in the previous stand- ing crop so that field may become available for its preparation and sowing, soon after the harvest of the previous crop. One light cultivation and leveling is required be- fore sowing. Delay in sowing causes drastic reduction in late sown wheat.

In rainfed areas Fields are usually prepared by giving one deep ploughing with iron plough followed by 2-3 ploughings with local plough and planking after every ploughing. In these areas, ploughings should possibly be done in the evenings and furrows should be left undisturbed for whole night in order to absorb some moisture through the dew. Planking should be done in the morning.

Selection of seed
Only healthy seeds of right varieties which is recommended for the particular locality should be selected for sowing. Always use certified seeds. If the seed is untreated, it should be treated before sowing with Vitavex or Thiram or Agrosan G.N. @ 2.5 g/kg of seed.

Time of sowing
Rainfed wheat is generally sown in the second fort- night of October and beginning of November. The normal time for sowing of high yielding dwarf varieties of wheat in irrigated areas starts in the beginning of November.

Long and medium duration varieties (135- 145 days) should be sown in the first fortnight of November, while short duration varieties (120-125 days) should be sown in the second fortnight of November.

In late sown wheat, short duration varieties like Sonalika and UP-lIS, should be sown because there is comparatively less reduction in their yield.

Seed rate and spacing
The optimum seed rate, for timely sown wheat, is 100 to 125 kg of seed per hectare. Row to row spacing should be 22.5 to 23 cm. The late sown wheat should be sown in rows spaced 15-18 cm with seed rate 125 to 156 kg/ha (about 25% higher than that of timely sown).

Depth of sowing

The Wheat seeds should be soaked in water overnight before sowing. The dwarf wheats should be sown at 5-6 cm depth as they have short coleoptiles. Seeding depth of 8-10 cm will result in poor germination and reduced yield.

Seeds of semi dwarf varieties can be sown to a depth of 5-6 cm but the seeds of three-gene dwarf varieties (the smallest among wheat varieties) should not be sown deeper than 4 cm.
In late sown crop, seeds should be sown shallow (say 4 cm deep) as deep sowing delays the emergence of seed- lings by 2-3 days and heading by 5-6 days. The tall varieties of wheat like K-65, K-62 etc. may be sown at 6-7 cm depth.

Methods of sowing

In this method, the seeds are broadcast and then worked in by harrowing in order to cover them or else, in addition to germination loss, birds too may pick them, seeds are not uniformly distributed, therefore, it should not be encouraged.

Behind local plough
Majority of farmers adopt this method of dropping the seeds by hand into the furrows which have been opened by the local plough. When seed is dropped in furrows by hand, it is called kera method and when it is dropped through a pora or nai (a wooden structure), it is called pora method. In this method, seeds are dropped at a depth of 5-6 cm and germination is satisfactory.

Seed drill is used for sowing which drops seeds at uniform depth and results in satisfactory germination and regular stand. Seed bed should be fine and well leveled, free from clods and weeds for the use of seed drill. Seed drills are easily available in the market. They may be either bullock driven or tractor driven. Now-a-days ferti-seed drills are also available in which there is provision for fertilizer application. The depth and rate of seeds/ fertilizers is controlled by certain devices attached to it.

Sowing is done with the help of a small implement known as dibbler. It is a wooden or iron frame with pegs. The frame is pressed in the field and then lifted and then one or two seeds are dropped by hand in each of the hole. It is not a common method because sowing by this method is tedious and time consuming. However, this method can be practised in small areas to obtain even and satisfactory germination of seedlings.

Manures and Fertilizers

Manures and fertilizers play an important role in wheat cultivation. Use of manures improves general physical condition of soil and increases its water retaining capacity. A liberal quantity of bulky manure should be applied. About 10-15 tonnes of well rotten farm yard manure or compost should be applied 4-6 weeks before sowing. However, manures by themselves can not meet the high nutrient requirement of the plants which are also in short supply. Therefore, it becomes necessary to supplement manures with chemical fertilizers to get higher yields. The high yielding dwarf varieties of wheat fully display their yielding faculty only when they are supplied with adequate quantities of nutrients at proper time.


A crop of wheat yielding 50 quintals of grain per hectare removes 100-150 kg nitrogen 70-80 kg phosphorus and 125 to 150 kg potash from the soil. The general guidelines for fertilization of high yielding dwarf varieties grown under different agro-climatic conditions is as per table
Recommended dose (kg/ha)
Time & method of application


Irrigated timely sown crop
All zones
Half of N and full quantity of P2O5 should be drilled about 5 cm below the seed at the time of sowing. The remaining half N should be top dressed at first irrigation.
Irrigated late sown crop
All zones
Irrigated followed by a  legume crop as follow in Kharif
All zones
Peninsular and  central zones
Total quantity of N and P2O5 should be applied 0-10cm deep in soil at or before sowing.

Other zones

Water soluble phosphatic fertilizers such as diammomum phosphate and super phosphate are most effective when applied in granular form, whereas citrate soluble fertilizers rock phosphate and basic slag are most effective in finely powdered form. Muriate of potash and potassium sulphate are the only potassic fertilizers presently available in the market. Both are equally good for wheat.

In addition to the major nutrients (N, P, and K), good responses to micronutrients, especially zinc have been obtained in many areas. If zinc deficiency has been observed in the locality, it is advisable to apply zinc sulphate @ 25-30 kg/ha at the time of last ploughing.

Irrigation Schedule of irrigation should be followed for the dwarf wheat varieties.
In case of dwarf high yielding varieties, a pre-sowing irrigation (Palewa irrigation) should be given and the crop is sown afterwards when the field becomes operable.

First irrigation
The first irrigation to the standing crop should be given 20-25 days after sowing that is at the crown root initiation stage. In cooler regions like hilly tracts and in late sown wheat, it is advantageous to apply first irrigation approximately 25 to 30 days after sowing.

Second irrigation
Second irrigation is given at tillering stage, within 40-45 days of sowing.

Third irrigation
At late jointing stage, within 70-75 days of sowing, the field is irrigated for the third time.

Fourth irrigation
At flowering stage, within 90-95 days of sowing the fourth irrigation becomes due.

Fifth irrigation

At dough stage, within 110-115 days after sowing it has been noticed that if any of these irrigations are delayed or missed, the yield is reduced to the tune of 5-10 quintals/ha.

Under limited supply of water the following schedule of irrigation should be observed for the best utilization of available water.

1. Where only one irrigation is available, give it at crown root initiation stage (CRI stage) i.e. 20-25 days after sowing.
2. Where two irrigations are available, first should be given at crown root initiation stage and second one at flowering stage.
3. Where three irrigations are possible, first irrigation should be given at CRI stage, second at late jointing (boot stage) and the third one should be given at milk stage.

These recommendations strongly stress the importance of irrigation at CRI stage. It has been found that each week delay in first irrigation for CRI stage results in yield reduction of 2-3 quintals per hectare.

Plant Protection Measures

Weed control

Wheat field is generally infested with following weeds:

1. Bathua (Chenopodium album) Dicot weeds
2. Gajri (Fumaria pariflora) " 3. Kateli (Cirsium arvense) "
4. Krisna neel (Anagallis arvensis) "
5. Senji (Melilotus indica) "
6. Anksi (Vicia sativa) "
7. Chatri matri (Lathyrus spp.) "
8. Gehunsa (Phalaris minor) Monocot weeds
9. Wild oat (Avenafatua) "
10. Motha (Cyp."rus rotandus) "
11. Doob (Cynodon dactylon) "

The most effective weedicide to remove all the broad leaved weeds in wheat field is 2,4-D. Its optimum quantity is mixed in about 400 to 600 litres of water for spraying in an area of one hectare. The amount of water may however, vary according to the type of sprayer in use, as follows:
Trade name
% active ingredient
Qty. per ha
2, 4-D
(2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid)
Bladex G
Amine (liquid)

Amine (liquid)
Bladex C
Easter (liquid)
1.4 litre
Easter (liquid)
1.4 litre
Sodium salt (powder)
Sodium salt (powder)

2, 4-D should be sprayed in wheat fields 32-35 days after sowing till 40 days of sowing.

Among monocot weeds Phalaris minor (gehunsa) is the major weed in most of the wheat fields. To control Phalaris minor spray Tribunil or Dosonex or Isoproturon @ 2 kgjha in 400-600 litres of water 32-35 days after sowing. Spray of Dosonex and Isoproturon will also control wild oat if it is present in wheat field.

Disease control

Wheat crop suffers from rusts, Alternaria leaf blight, loose smut, karnal bunt, powdery mildew etc. In Rusts, there are three different species of the fungus Puccinia. Out of these three, stem or black rust is most serious and destructive.

Brown rust

Causal organism-Puccinia recondita tritici. Round or oblong, orange, scattered pustules are formed on leaves and sometimes on leaf sheaths. Later on, these pustules turn black and are covered with a thin membrane. It spreads fast on susceptible varieties during warm and humid environmental conditions. In case of the severe attack, plants mature early, and produce light and shrivel- led grains.

Yellow rust

Causal organism-Puccinia striiformis. Small, yellow, elliptical pustules appear on leaves, forming stripes. These stripes later turn black. Sometimes the pustules appear on the leaf sheath and glumes. Appearance of lemon yellow pustules is characteristic feature of yellow rust.

Black rust

Causal organism-Puccinia graminis tritici. Uredial pustules occur on stem, leaves, leaf sheath, and ear heads. Stem is most severely affected. Pustules are reddish brown in colour and elongated in shape. This rust spreads fast under relatively warmer and humid environmental conditions. The name black rust was given to this rust due to the prominence of its dark black mycelia.

Control for rusts

1. Grow rust resistant wheat varieties. These are: (i) yellow rust: Choti lerma, Sonalika, Girija, ShaiIza; Arun, etc. (ii) Brown rust: Sonalika, Girija, Pratap, Janak, etc. (iii) Black rust: Sonalika, Arjun, Kalyan sona, PV-18, V,P.-301. N.P. 200, etc.
2. Avoid late sowing of late maturing varieties.
3. Do not use excess nitrogenous fertilizers, since high dose of nitrogen favours rust development. Instead, use of high dose of potash is known to reduce rust development.
4. Damage by wheat rusts can be minimized by spraying Zineb or Dithane M-45. Spraying is recommended only when a good crop of wheat is threatened by rusts. Spray 0.2% Zineb or Dithane M-45 and 0.1 % Sandonit as recommended below:

i. First spray when rust pustules are seen i.e. the last week of January-February.
ii. Second spray 10 days after the first.
iii. Third and fourth sprays at an interval of 14 days for each.

For first spray, about 375 litre of solution will be sufficient. But for second and onward it will be 750 litres, 1000 litres and 1250 litres solution per hectare.

Loose smut

Causal organism-Ustilago nuda tritici. The main symptom of this disease is the production of black powder in place of wheat grains in the ears. This black powder is a mass of spores of the fungus. When spores are blown to flowers of healthy plants, they germinate on stigma and lead to the infection of the developing seeds.

Control measures for smuts are as under:

1. Growing of loose smut resistant varieties.
2. Since loose smut fungus totally depends on wheat seed for its survival and carryover from one season to another, growing of disease free seeds is another method to control the spread of this rust. Treat the seed with Vitavax @ 2.5 g/kg of seed before planting.
3. Solar heat treatment of infected seed is highly valuable in the hot summer to make the seed disease free. On a bright sunny day in the last week of Mayor first week of June, soak the seed in fresh water for about 4 hours in the morning and then dry it under hot sun in the afternoon. Store the well dried seed for use in next wheat season. Soaking the seeds and subsequent sun drying kills the fungus.

Kamal bunt
This disease reduces both quantity and quality of wheat. Flour prepared from wheat with more than 3 % infected grains smell fishy and is unfit for human consumption. Causal organisms of this disease is fungus Neovossia indica. A portion of the infected grains along its groove is converted into black powdery mass. In very severe cases, the embryo tissue is also destroyed. The black powder gives a foul smell due to presence of a compound, trymethylamine. In a plant hill all the ears are not infected and in a ear only a few grains are infected.

Control measures are the following:
1. Avoid planting highly susceptible varieties like HD-2009, UP-319, WL-711, HD-1982.
2. Use disease free seed.
3. Treat seed before sowing with Agrosan G.N. @ the rate of 2.5 g/kg of seed.
4. Avoid continuous cropping of wheat in the same field.

Powdery mildew

Causal organism-Erysiphe graminis tritici. This disease is characterized by the formation of white powdery growth of fungus on the upper surface of leaves. The white growth contains mycelium and spores of the fungus. Later on, the colour of the powdery growth becomes grey or brown. Under severe disease conditions, leaf sheaths, stems and ear heads may also be covered by the fungus. This disease is common in the sub mountainous areas of northern India, certain parts of Rajasthan and the hills.

It can be controlled in the following ways:

a. Grow varieties resistant to the diseases.
b. Bum crop refuse in the field after the harvest is over.
c. If loss is expected to be high, spraying with a mixture of Dithane M-45 and Karathane has been found beneficial. Prepare mixture by mixing 16 parts of Dithane M-45 and 4 parts of Karathane-25 wettable powder. Spray mixture @ 2 kg/ha dissolved in 1000 litres of water. About three sprays will be sufficient at an interval of 10-15 days. Amount of water for different sprays may be decided on the basis of growing stage of the crop.

Alternaria leaf blight
Causal organism-Alternaria triticina. Lowermost leaves are always first to be infected which gradually spread to the upper leaves also. The disease first appears as small, oval, discoloured lesions, irregular in shape as these enlarge and become dark brown to grey. As the disease progresses, several spots convalesce covering large areas resulting in the death or necrosis of leaves.This disease spreads very fast under warm and humid conditions. Heavily infected fields present a burnt appearance.

Control measures are as follows:

a. Seed borne infection can be controlled by treating seed with Vitavax @ 2.5 gjkg of seed.
b. Apply adequate fertilizers and irrigation.
c. Alternarja leaf blight can also be controlled by Zineb or Dithane M-45. The fungicides may be sprayed as described for rust but mix the urea at 2-3 % with Zineb for first and second sprays.

Insect pests

Termites damage the crop soon after sowing and sometimes near maturity. The damaged plants dry up completely and are easily pulled out. For controlling termites, Aldrin 5% dust or BHC 10% dust @ 25 kg/ha is mixed with soil during last ploughing before sowing. This treatment will also prevent the attack of Gujhia weevil on wheat crop.

Army worms
Caterpillars of this insect feed on plants during the night and hide during the day time. They are controlled by dusting 10% BHC dust @ 25 kg/ha. A spray of Carbaryl (Sevin 50 w.p.) @ 2.5 kg/ha dissolved in 600-800 litres of water.

Brown wheat mite, aphids and jassids
These leaf sucking insects also damage the wheat crop. To control these pests apply 0.5 litre Folithian or Thiodan dissolved in 800 litres of water.

Field rats
Field rats cause heavy damage to the wheat crop. For control, all the burrows in the field should be closed in the evening and the reopened burrows be fumigated in the morning with aluminium phosphide @ 1 tablet of 0.5 gjsmall burrow and 3.0 gjlarge burrow. Baiting with Cumarin (ratafin) @ 1 kg of prepared bait, is also useful.

The bait is prepared as follows:
a. Cumarin-l part
b. Wheat flour-19 parts
c. Molasses-l part
d. Mustard oil-l part.

Harvesting, Threshing and Yield

Wheat crop is harvested when the grains become hard and the straw becomes dry and brittle. The right stage for harvesting wheat is when there is about 25-30 %, moisture in grains. High yielding dwarf varieties of wheat should be harvested when the leaves and stems turn yellow. To avoid loss in yield, the crop should be harvested before it is dead ripe, because at this stage there is danger of grains being shattered in some varieties like Sonalika.

The maturity time of the crop differs from zones to zones and also depends upon the nature of cultivation i.e. whether it is under rainfed or irrigated conditions. The rainfed crops matures much earlier than irrigated crop.  General time for harvesting is as follows:

Wheat growing zones
Time of harvesting crop
N.E.P. zone
It starts from march and continues uptil mid April
N.W.P zone
Second fortnight of April
Central zone
End of February to March
Peninsular zone
Second fortnight of February to beginning of March
Hilly zone
May to June

The harvesting is mostly done by sickles. Now-a- days in certain areas like Punjab, Haryana, Western U.P., etc., combine harvesters are also used for this purpose. By harvesting and threshing with combines, the straw, a by-product of wheat, is lost to the field.

The average yield of wheat grain is 12 to 14 quintals/ha. When cultivation of high yielding dwarf varieties is done with improved scientific farming practices, they generally produce about 45 to 55 quintals/ ha of grains under rainfed conditions.

Rotations and Mixed Cropping in Wheat

In the irrigated areas a variety of crops like paddy, jowar, bajra, maize, cotton, toria, arhar, moong, urd, etc are grown in rotation with wheat. Some of most common rotations are given below:

Rotation Duration

1. Paddy-wheat 1 year
2. Maize-wheat 1 year
3. Arhar-wheat I year
4. Bajra-wheat I year
5. Maize-wheat-cotton-berseem 2 years
6. Paddy-wheat-jowar-gram 2 years
7. Maize-wheat-sugarcane-ratoon 3 years
8. Maize-wheat-freen manuring-potato-sugarcane 3 years

Mixed cropping of wheat with mustard, gram, and linseed is common in most of the areas of wheat growing belt. Now-a-days intercropping with autumn sugarcane and potato is also becoming popular in some parts of northern India.

Potato-wheat relay cropping can increase the yield of wheat. It is observed that in potato wheat relay cropping if the seed rate is increased to 80 kg/ha and 60 kg N/ha is applied, 4.5 tonnes /ha of wheat can be obtain- ed which is almost the same as that in pure stands of wheat.

In this condition, potato is planted in mid October while wheat is sown by early December in the furrows of standing potato crops. Wheat inter row spacing is 50-60 cm.


Wheat Varieties for Irrigated Conditions

It is an early maturing single dwarf wheat with wide adaptation and good attractive amber grains. It is recommended for cultivation in north western, north eastern and peninsular zones but it is grown in northern hills and central zones also. This variety is very suitable for late sowing and quite resistant to rusts.

It is a double dwarf wheat with wide adaptability recommended for cultivation all over India. Since it is a rust susceptible variety, it should be grown only where rusts do not come and should be planted quite early in the season.

Arjun (HD-2009)
High yielding double dwarf variety possessing a high degree of rust resistance. However, jt is highly susceptible to Karnal bunt disease. Its grains are amber, small and semi hard to soft. It is suitable for normal sowing in Karnal bunt free areas of Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan and Western Uttar Pradesh.

Janak (HD-1982)
It is a double dwarf and medium maturing variety and posesses medium bold, hard and amber grains. It has high degree of rust resistance. This variety is suitable for timely and late sown conditions of eastern Uttar Pra- desh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam and Orissa.

Double-dwarf and medium maturing variety. Resistant to rusts and karnal bunt. Suitable for timely sowing in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Western Uttar Pradesh.

It is a single-dwarf and high yielding wheat variety. It is resistant to rusts, Alternaria and Helmenthosporium. It possesses bold and amber grains and has got better chapati making quality than Sonalika. It is suitable for timely as well as late sown conditions in eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Assam, West Bengal and Orissa.

A double-dwarf wheat variety showing a heavy degree of resistance to rusts. Suitable for timely sown condi- tions of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu.

It is a single-dwarf wheat variety. It is high yielding and medium maturing. It is moderately susceptible to rusts and highly susceptible to powdery mildew and karnal : bunt. Suitable for timely sowing in western Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi and Rajasthan.

This is a triple-dwarf wheat with high level of rust resistance. It possesses good grains and chapati making quality. To avoid losses due to shattering it. should be harvested at appropriate time. It is suitable for growing, in northern India.

Triple-dwarf wheat variety suitable for western Uttar Pradesh and Karnataka States possesses a high degree of resistance against rusts. It has good grain and chapatti making quality.

It is a single-dwarf variety highly resistant to rusts. This variety is specifically suitable to higher altitudes of * northern India.

It is a single-dwarf and high yielding, early maturing and resistant to rusts. This variety is suitable for late sown conditions of eastern Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Assam and Orissa.

This variety is suitable for medium fertility conditions and suitable for hills of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka states.

This variety is suitable for cultivation under timely sown, high fertility, irrigation conditions of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Kota, south east of Rajasthan and Bundelkhand area of Uttar Pradesh.

Suitable for cultivation in north Indian plains.

This variety is resistant to almost all the diseases. It is very flexible in respect of the time of sowing. The bread quality of this variety is excellent. Its protein content is about 15% higher than most other varieties. Ideal for cultivation in Uttar Pradesh which is often subject to the vagaries of nature.

It is a double-dwarf wheat with a high degree of resistance to all the three rusts. Suitable for the normal sown conditions of the north eastern zone of the country.

Double-dwarf variety, suitable for north-western plain zone for early and normal sown, high fertility conditions. It is resistant to all three rusts. The yield potential is up to 50 q/ha.

It is a double-dwarf wheat suitable for central India. It has a field resistance to all three rusts. The grains are smooth and shining. It has shown wide adaptability.

Single-dwarf wheat suitable for peninsular zone for normal sown, high fertility conditions. It has high field resistance to stem, leaf and strip rusts. It possesses, bold, hard, smooth and shining grains. It has yielded up to 55 q/ha.